With the real need of national new rural construction, the urbanization rate will reach 60% by 2020, so the site selection of rural settlements is a major project. The site selection study of new scattered rural areas is particularly important. The country advocates the concentration of traditional independent farming methods to modern large-scale operations and scattered settlement methods to towns or new rural communities.
The direction of the study of land use change in rural settlements is gradually approaching to the microscopic direction, as well as there is increasingly strict government management and increased participation of farmers, the influence of government decisions and farmers’ wishes on the change of land use in rural settlements will be enhanced. In the case of fairness, farmers’ willingness is an important influencing factor. For new rural construction in scattered rural areas, farmers’ willingness is a very important factor in site selection.
1 Appropriateness evaluation of site selection under the perspective of justice
1.1 Introduction of fair thinking and vision in site selection
The conventional factors influencing the site selection of rural settlements are natural environmental factors, economic and environmental factors, socio-cultural environmental factors and institutional policy environmental factors. With the change of socio-economic and cultural traditional factors and the improvement of farmers’ knowledge and culture, the national law should be well transformed to local justice.
The traditional site selection factors can no longer be used as the only criteria for site selection, and these traditional factors can be realized by many technical means to make quantitative decisions. The planning and site selection of centralized housing should focus on the idea of democracy, and the will of farmers should be introduced as an important influencing factor in the site selection as well as the election, and the planning and site selection of centralized housing should be studied in a fair perspective.
1.2 Overview of site selection area planning
In view of the characteristics of scattered rural areas, this paper especially selects the villages in Jingmen City, Hubei Province to be the object of study. The local area is a typical hilly rural area, with a particularly scattered per capita residence, basically a household with a hill, a small field area, and a large area with a majority of fields.
On this basis, 3 villages and 116 households were visited and questionnaires were administered. The survey learned that the current new rural construction has been deeply rooted in the hearts of the people, the masses are highly motivated, the pilot work in an orderly manner, but facing production and living difficulties and other problems are very prominent, must be in accordance with the overall requirements of the new rural construction, according to local conditions to do a good job planning, take strong measures to improve the production and living conditions of farmers, accelerate the cultivation and development of industry, and strive to improve the quality of farmers, and solidly promote the new rural construction.
Poor planning of village construction, “scattered, small, chaotic” problem is more prominent. Due to the long-term lag of village construction planning, the lack of effective planning guidance for the construction of villages, most of the village layout is scattered, village construction is disorderly, the overall is still in a disorderly state, there is a new house without a new look, a new house without a new village phenomenon is more common.
Poor village environment, “dirty, messy, poor” problem is more prominent. The main problems are unclean sanitation, unclear river water, garbage dumping, loose poultry and livestock, and mixed livestock and human living are common. In the questionnaire survey, 28% of the farmers were most dissatisfied with the rural condition of poor sanitation, and 30% were most dissatisfied with the unreasonable village planning.
1.3 Survey of farmers’ willingness and the current situation of rural settlements
The survey was conducted to three villages as the survey research area, using the form of symposium and classification random sampling survey, according to the relative sampling ratio, more than 60% of the village farm households, a total of 700 households were sampled, after screening 650 households are valid, followed by the survey and guidance to fill in the survey for farmers with low education level first in order to improve the efficiency and accuracy.
1.4 Evaluation of land suitability for rural settlement planning (TY)
1.4.1 Establishment of evaluation index system
Rural settlement planning site evaluation is a study involving natural, social and economic aspects, which requires the establishment of a complete and practical set of indicators for comprehensive measurement.
In the analysis of the questionnaire survey of rural settlements, this study found that the influencing factors for the siting of settlements that farmers are concerned about include the degree of security for infrastructure, the degree of security for external transportation, the degree of security for compulsory education, and the degree of security for public health, accounting for 82%, 79%, 89%, and 72% of the total questionnaires, respectively. After consulting experts’ opinions and based on the Technical Regulations of Village and Township Planning, 10 influencing factors were finally selected to establish the scheme of land suitability evaluation index system for rural settlement planning, taking into account the different degrees of influence of different factors on the land suitability of rural settlements.
The expert scoring method was used to determine the quantification of the evaluation index weights factor indicators. For spatial continuity variables, standard deviation, power function and exponential method models are used to estimate their suitability, such as topographic position and water influence degree, etc.: for conceptual variables, assigned value expressions are used, such as geological hazards and slope direction.
According to the historical records of Jingmen area, geological hazards in the area are basically non-existent, and the area is hilly, so the local residents are not concerned about the slope direction as a factor. The scale of land use and the growth rate of residential land use reflect the current living standard of farmers and the potential for future development, but the Jingmen area is basically old and weak, and it is difficult for young and strong people to return to their hometowns to farm, so these two indicators can basically not be considered.
The development of each evaluated factor on rural settlement site selection study is not independent, and different combinations of factors have very different degrees of influence, some promoting each other and some contradicting each other. In order to investigate scientifically, the field survey should be conducted and each factor should be integrated and quantified for analysis. The evaluation indicators are shown in Table 3.
1.4.2 Factor indicator variables
For continuous spatial variables this paper takes its standard deviation, exponential or power function as the criteria to assess its suitability.
Water resources influence degree (1): water is the absolute influence on the life and production of farmers. However, it is also affected by the geological unsuitable conditions for people to live in, such as river bank and reservoir side, so it should be restricted conditions.
Arable land accessibility (2): Arable land is the key for farmers to survive. Their living and living distance should be closer to the arable land distance, according to the survey it is known that the maximum average distance is 614m, using the following formula to simplify.
Town center accessibility (3) the degree of influence and role of the town center on its economy.
Accessibility of land for commercial and industrial enterprises (4): its response is the key to the access of farming households to non-farming economic sources. Annual household income (5), population size (6) infrastructure coverage (7) distance to schools (8) and distance to health stations (9) and road accessibility (10) reflect the degree of influence of farm households in securing amenities such as education and health
1.5 Settlement site selection planning scheme determination
Based on the process of determining the rural site on the one hand, the site of the new site should consider the area of the old site, it is best to make more use of the area of the old site, which not only can make full use of its public facilities and eliminate the initiative of land abuse, but also can establish a conservation-oriented society, in line with the traditional model of rural site selection, and carry out internal tapping. We will achieve the goal of rational and scientific site selection.
2 Countermeasures for centralized housing planning and site selection under the perspective of local justice
2.1 Important consideration of farmers’ wishes in site selection
The current research on the driving force of land use change in rural settlements mainly focuses on land use layout change and land use scale change. The research methods include quantitative and qualitative analysis methods, and the methods are diversified, using the principal component analysis method, regression analysis method and correlation analysis method in the statistical analysis method.
At the same time, modern geographic information technology is used comprehensively to obtain relevant data and comparative analysis. The research direction of land use change in rural settlements is gradually approaching to the micro direction, as well as the increasingly strict management by the government and the increase of farmers’ participation, the influence of governmental decision and farmers’ will on the change of land use in rural settlements will be enhanced. There is a lack of quantitative studies considering farmers’ willingness and exploring farmers’ site selection. From a local justice perspective, for new rural construction in scattered villages, farmers’ willingness is a very important factor in planning site selection.
2.2 Transformation of Basic Farmland in Scattered Villages
Most of the scattered villages are formed by family names, such as “Zhoujiawan, Wangjiating, Lijiashan”, etc. The villages are long and not clustered. Farmers choose their place of residence based on the convenience of cultivating their own basic farmland, which is basically terraced, small in size and difficult to operate mechanically. In order for farmers to gather and live in peace of mind, the first thing to do is to talk about the transformation of farmland so that it can basically form a large field that is easy to mechanize and cultivate. The farmers rely on the way of survival is well improved, thus extending the economic life of farmers farming.
2.3 Fair and reasonably priced replacement of new houses and former self-built houses in rural areas
The price of self-built farm houses in diaspora farmers’ settlements should be given a reasonable and fair assessment, and the price of new houses should be deducted from the price of rural self-built houses, and the rest should be the amount that farmers should pay in replacement. Government departments should establish a reasonable housing subsidy policy, taking into account the geographical location of the current residence, construction materials, building structure, building area, building time, etc., and provide a reasonable amount of subsidy to promote the communityization of rural housing.
2.4 Improvement of the guarantee system in the settlement area
The centralized residence of farmers is beneficial to village management. Communities are generally equipped with hospitals, schools, supermarkets, restaurants, etc., which meet the basic needs of farmers while providing employment opportunities for farmers and increasing their non-farm income. In view of the low education level and lack of work experience of farmers, the community can provide them with some simple jobs, such as supermarket tellers, restaurant dishwashers, cleaners, etc. At the same time, the community can also organize some lectures or open training institutions, improve the employment service system, and provide pre-employment training for farmers before they start working, so that more farmers can adapt to modern life, find jobs suitable for them, increase their income, and eliminate the worries of centralized living.
3 Conclusion and Prospect
Through field research and theoretical analysis, it can be seen that the site selection of land for rural settlements is unscientific; most of the land per capita exceeds the national standard regulations; and the infrastructure construction of rural settlements is too slow.
These should be the factors that hinder the reasonable allocation of rural land and improve the utilization rate of rural land. The rational allocation of land for rural settlements is not only related to government departments but also inseparably linked to farmers’ wishes. The content of the factors influencing the location of rural settlements is the same as exploring the degree of influence of factors related to farmers. Taking into account the farmers’ wishes, the set of factors that are consistent with their rural site selection is finally established.
The study also shows that it can be seen that it is also influenced by the natural, family, economic and other environments. However, the degree of their influence varies considerably. Addressing how to scientifically evaluate suitability is the key to siting rural settlements. At present, there are relatively few studies on the siting of “diasporic” farmers’ settlements, especially those that introduce influencing factors from a legal perspective.
This study is based on the perspective of justice in the legal theory, especially the selection of farmers’ willingness factors, and the evaluation of their indicators from the perspectives of natural, cultural and social development, and finally the evaluation of the weighting by experts’ scoring in a scientific method, which is relatively practical and innovative.